Introduction of standard model
Standard model in particle physics is the most powerful building block of modern physics and it is thought that the modern physics is based on three framework, standard model, quantum field theorem, general theory of relativity. In order to filling the gaps in physics that was still unsolved by quantum field theorem and general theory of relativity as well as other theories of physics.
standard model is a theorem of matter and energies. standard model puts all of the elementary particles and forces in a one continuum. It is possible to partition of standard model into two separate scheme. these separate schemes are electroweak force and quantum chromodynamics. exactly, standard model is a combined form of electroweak force and quantum chromodynamics. electroweak force is a unified form of electromagnetism and weak force.
Standard model in particle physics Concerned with classifying of all subatomic particles and making a relationship between nuclear electromagnetic force, weak force and strong force. In 1970, standard model of particle physics emerged with a new formulation when the existence of Quarks were proved by experiment. Actually, In particle physics the standard model is developing gradually and most probably gradually. Recent discovery of Higgs Boson particles is an another included developmental step of Standard model of particle physics. Not only Higgs Boson particles but also the discovery of Tau neutrino and Top quarks also gives a developmental process in standard model in particle physics. The historical development of Standard model of particle physics started in 1961, by discovering a way of combining electromagnetic and weak interaction by Sheldon Glashow. By introducing Higgs mechanism into electroweak theory of Glashow gives a modern format of Standard model of particle physics. The acceptability of electroweak theory became increases and got widely acceptable after discovery of neutral weak current. In 1973, CERN discovered neutral weak current that is caused by Z boson exchange. Due to establishing a developmental format of electroweak theory, Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam and Weinberg won Nobel prize. The authenticity of standard model of particle physics became a great range of acceptability, when in 1981, w Boson and Z boson discovered experimentally. The prediction of the standard model of particle physics about the mass of particle are found to matching with the mass of W boson and Z boson. Relationship between quantum field theory and standard model is that the quantum field theory gives the mathematical framework of standard model where dynamics and kinematics are controlled by Lagrangian. Standard model is considered as the fundamental theory of all kinds of interaction. Actually standard model is nothing but a paradigm of quantum field theorem that provides a brief description on different complex topics of physics including spontaneous symmetry breaking,anomalies,elaborate symmetry and super symmetry. Challenging of classical standard model is its self consistencies. where experiment allows the existence of mass of neutrinos, in this case classical standard ignores the mass of neutrinos.
Achievement of standard model
Once it was thought that the atoms are the building block of universe. But after discovery of elementary particles this conception became out dated. Scientists now thought about quarks and leptons. A great evidence of acceptability of standard model is found after announcing of finding of new particle by CERN. Recently CERN announced that they have found s special characteristics of particle which behavior is similar with the behavior of the Higgs Boson particles predicted by standard model, which is thought as the origin of mass of particles. Higgs Boson is such kinds of particles that with magically gives mass to other particles.
Standard model is a theory of a fundamental interaction of matter and force.
Different phenomenon of physics are about to reach in a conclusion by considering standard model is getting possible. One of the example about photon, that mediated electromagnetic radiation is now thought that it is the Boson particles of standard model. Because a great range of behavioral similarity is found between photon and boson. One of this is independence with physics of time.
The behavior of Fermion in standard model gives us a complete shape of our universe. Is it symmetrical or not? Very wonderful behavior of Fermion is found that is its spin half rotation. Due to spin half rotation any point of fermion had to rotate 720 degree to reaching of the starting point after a complete rotation. Scientists tried this behavior of fermion to put into universe. In this case they found another same copies of universe may be possible if spin half rotation is considered. Hence, the universe should be spherically symmetrical.
Limitation of standard model
Though standard model is a fundamental there of interaction, it have very serious shortcomings. Some phenomenon in physics can not explain by standard model. The problems in quantum gravity remain unchanged and have no complete solution in standard model. Various types of constant s in nature is still now undefined and unexplained by standard model. Speed of light and charges of electron is the very popular examples of these kinds of constants.
Standard model does not unified all forces in a single scheme. Hence it is not a complete theory of interaction.
Standard model have another great limitation that is a large number of arbitrary constant. From Big Bang theory we already have known about the expansion of universe from a singular point of hot and dense state. The conception about the earlier state of universe into a singular point is known as singularity. Scientists believes that the expansion of universe is accelerating. But standard model of particle physics does not incorporate the accelerating expansion of universe. The explanation of theory of gravitation by general theory of relativity can not incorporate by standard model of particle physics.
Another a big limitation of standard model is found in terms of dark matter. The existence of dark matter by experimental evidence is dissimilar with the prediction of standard model. Because standard model does not includes dark matter conception. Even, neutrino oscillation is not a considerable topics in standard model.